Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid, belongs to the water soluble B vitamin family. Its name originates from the Greek word “pantos”, meaning “everywhere”, as it is widely found throughout all living cells. Similar to other B vitamins, pantothenic acid plays a vital role in various enzymatic reactions that facilitate energy release from macronutients. 

Functions

Pantothenic acid forms part of the coenzyme A complex, a molecule essential for the liberation of energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It also has roles in a myriad of biochemical processes including hormone production, blood sugar regulation, immune defence, blood haemoglobin protection, and hair and skin formation.  


Reference Intake (RI)

    







 

RI values for pantothenic acid have not been published to date. Current estimated average intakes of 3 - 7 mg / d are considered adequate, even during pregnancy and lactation.  


  






Food Sources

PRODUCTS

Mushrooms (Shiitake, cooked)

Cheese (Gjetost)

Trout (cooked)

Avocados  

(mg / 100 g)

3.59 

3.35 

2.24 

1.46

PRODUCTS

Eggs

Lean Pork (Sirloin, cooked)    

Sunflower Seeds  

Beef & Veal (Veal Shoulder, cooked)  

(mg / 100 g)

1.53

1.65 

7.06 

1.61 

 

Deficiency / Toxicity

No evidence of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) deficiency in humans exists to date, widely distributed as it is throughout a variety of food sources from meat, fish and poulty to cereals, grains and pulses. Experimental dietary deficiency of pantothenic acid has been shown to result in; 

  • Muscle tremors or cramps
  • Fatigue
  • Insomnia
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Gastrointestinal disturbances 


Toxicity due to high intake of pantothenic acid has not been reported, although large doses may result in diarrhoea and stomach upset.